Today, NMR has become a sophisticated and powerful analytical technology that has found a variety of applications in many
disciplines of scientific research, medicine, and various industries. Modern NMR spectroscopy has been emphasizing the application
in biomolecular systems and plays an important role in structural biology. With developments in both methodology and instrumentation
in the past two decades, NMR has become one of the most powerful and versatile spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of
biomacromolecules, allowing characterization of biomacromolecules and their complexes up to 100 kDa. Together with X-ray
crystallography, NMR spectroscopy is one of the two leading technologies for the structure determination of biomacromolecules at
atomic resolution. In addition, NMR provides unique and important molecular motional and interaction profiles containing pivotal
information on protein function. The information is also critical in drug development. Some of the applications of NMR spectroscopy
are listed below:
- Solution structure The only method for atomic-resolution structure determination of biomacromolecules in aqueous solutions
under near physiological conditions or membrane mimeric environments.
- Molecular dynamics The most powerful technique for quantifying motional properties of biomacromolecules.
- Protein folding The most powerful tool for determining the residual structures of unfolded proteins and the structures of
- Ionization state The most powerful tool for determining the chemical properties of functional groups in biomacromolecules,
such as the ionization states of ionizable groups at the active sites of enzymes.
- Weak intermolecular interactions Allowing weak functional interactions between macrobiomolecules (e.g., those with
dissociation constants in the micromolar to millimolar range) to be studied, which is not possible with other technologies.
- Protein hydration A power tool for the detection of interior water and its interaction with biomacromolecules.
- Hydrogen bonding A unique technique for the DIRECT detection of hydrogen bonding interactions.
- Drug screening and design Particularly useful for identifying drug leads and determining the conformations of the compounds
bound to enzymes, receptors, and other proteins.
- Native membrane protein Solid state NMR has the potential for determining atomic-resolution structures of domains of membrane
proteins in their native membrane environments, including those with bound ligands.
- Metabolite analysis A very powerful technology for metabolite analysis.
- Chemical analysis A matured technique for chemical identification and conformational analysis of chemicals whether synthetic
- Material science A powerful tool in the research of polymer chemistry and physics.